Gay Rights - Movement, Marriage & Flag - HISTORY
The 70s opened with men walking on the moon. It ends with an energy crisis, inflation and unemployment. Roundup of efforts to recycle more of our waste, narrated by Tony Britton. In Japan the development of a voice-controlled word processor will revolutionise their offices. In Sweden 'text inspectors' have to check on any illegal entries on computer files. In Britain Prestel can supply all kinds of information into homes and offices.
Our latest Narratively story isn't available online - we printed the entire thing on a tote bag!
Horizon examines some of the more far-reaching and subtle effects of the new information age. We ask: Can we foresee any of the cultural changes that lie ahead? When Mount St. Helens erupted last May, it did much more damage than geologists had expected. Horizon looks at the aftermath of the devastating explosion, and at the beginnings of environmental recovery. Horizon presents a portrait of renowned economist John Maynard Keynes. It follows his life story, his ideas on economics and his contributions to the arts. A hang-glider pilot, a miner and a lorry driver-they all happily accept risks every day, but now they are threatened with a nuclear power station on their doorsteps.
Yet according to the experts, they have no need to worry, as the risk is minute compared with the hazards in their normal lives. How accurate are the experts' figures, and why is it that people nevertheless do not believe that a nuclear power station, or a petrochemical complex like Canvey Island is safe?
No major technological undertaking is completely without risk. But how are governments to decide what is an 'acceptable' risk, one that is seen to be fair and justifiable by the majority of the population? Richard Feynman talks about his life. Horizon investigates the current state of computer and analogue graphics by interviewing assists and scientists involved with scientific and technical modelling, 3D movie animation, and computer gaming.
Unidentified flying objects - UFOs - exist. The question is: what are they? In most cases those who see UFOs are not mad or drunk, but responsible adults who are sincerely convinced that they have witnessed something very strange. And the sightings are not just visual - UFOs have been photographed, filmed and tracked on radar. So are these sightings evidence of spacecraft from other worlds-or of something more down to Earth?
Tonight's programme examines some of the more classic UFO cases and comes up with at least one rather startling possibility. A history of space exploration starting from the dawn of the space age in with the launch of Sputnik to the Space Shuttle Columbia. Is it possible to read someone's mind or foretell the future?
Do some people have psychic powers or a sixth sense? Most scientists would emphatically say no, and that the many people who believe in such things are credulous, irrational and unscientific. We talk to the leading critics of the new research, who reflect the views of the scientific establishment that ESP really stands for Error Some Place - and we show some scientists' recent attempts to answer their critics by taking ESP out of the laboratory and putting it to the test in the world of commerce, crime, archaeology and warfare.
Barney Clark died in March, having survived days with the world's first permanent pneumatic total artificial heart. Horizon follows the case with the surgeon, William DeVries, and looks at the prospects for this technology to save lives. On 1 August Dr Joseph Priestley discovered an unknown gas-oxygen: a discovery that may lead today to a cure for rheumatoid arthritis and cheap fuel from sunlight.
Professor Ian Fells shows how we are still trying to understand the links between oxygen and living things. The Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at Cambridge University, he made his name by discovering that black holes are not necessarily black - some of them shine. Afflicted by a terrible illness, Professor Hawking relies on his young students to help him In his work - an ambitious programme to unify all the disparate theories of physics into one ultimate theory of everything. If he succeeds, then his discipline, theoretical physics, may have only 20 years or so to go before it comes to an end.
Each year in Britain four million animals, including rats, mice, rabbits, dogs and monkeys are used for animal experiments; their bodies are the testing ground for new products as well as for the advance of scientific knowledge. Scientists maintain that without these animal experiments our future health and safety would be dangerously at risk. Yet to many of us the very idea of animals being used in this way is repugnant. Are all these animal experiments essential or useful?
Could they be replaced by cell cultures, computer models and other sophisticated laboratory techniques which would relieve or remove that suffering and death? Does it have to be either our well-being or animal welfare? An investigation into the alternatives to that cruel choice. In Dr Norman Borlaug was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize for advances in agricultural technology which had produced new 'miracle' rice and wheat. The Green Revolution had arrived; it was hoped that world hunger would disappear.
But in the years which followed the new technology only seemed to make the rich farmers richer and the poor farmers poorer. How have agricultural scientists responded to this? Through the eyes of an economist, Keith Griffin President of Magdalen College, Oxford Horizon looks critically at the new 'Green Revolution' as scientists work in Mexico, Bangladesh and the Philippines to help the poor grow more food.
Their new approach may offer some hope - but unless there are equal changes in economic and political structures are other kinds of revolution inevitable? Report, using material of the time, of the moon landing , and discussion on the USA's space programme.
Investigates the history of germ warfare and the threat of a new biological arms race. Chickens packed in battery cages, pigs in metal crates so small they can't turn round - that's what modern farming means to many people, and they're against it.
But what do the animals feel about it all? Scientists are now studying farm animals to find out more about their natural behaviour and about how farmers can change the way they treat them, in the hope of improving farm productivity and making life better for them. And they've come up with some surprising evidence from experiments that include lambs in balaclava helmets, hens laying multicoloured eggs, pigs building nests - and a group of chickens that roundly rejected an influential government report on welfare.
Report on the passage of the European Giotto spacecraft as it passes through the tail of Halley's Comet. The virus that causes AIDS has become one of the most intensively studied disease-causing organisms in the history of science. Its anatomy has been dissected, and the way it penetrates the body's defences understood. This year a vaccine has reached the crucial stage of testing in monkeys. And a powerful new drug may offer some hope to sufferers.
But the more AIDS researchers learn, the more worried they become. The virus has now infected 20 million people across the globe; it is spreading sexually between males and females; and attacking not only the immune system, but also the brain. Eventually, hundreds of thousands of young people with AIDS may require specialised mental health care.
There are clocks in your body which, left to themselves, would have you live a hour day. Tampering with them, just by working the wrong shift pattern, may lead to illness, or may affect your ability to have a child. Understanding body-clocks helps to cure winter depression, warns of death rhythms in unborn babies, leads to pills for reducing jet-lag, gives longer lives to some cancer patients - and may even provide cheaper meat.de.oziwobur.tk
The Secret Triangle: Of Life, Death, and Evolution
How can science help in the investigation of political kidnappings and mass murder? Argentina's military juntas were responsible for torturing and killing over 10, people. Today their bones are their only witnesses. By exhuming unmarked graves, forensic scientists are identifying individual victims and finding important evidence to bring those responsible to justice. Many of the 'Children of the Disappeared' have survived because they were illegally taken by military families who may have been involved in their parents' murder. When grandparents eventually trace their grandchildren, the only way they can get them back is to prove their real identity by genetic testing.
In Wells Cathedral there is a clue to the origin of rheumatoid arthritis. It is one tiny piece in the puzzle that has vexed doctors for years: what causes this crippling joint disease? Is it an infection by bacteria or viruses? Is it stress or diet?
Intense research this century has answered some of these questions, only to reveal more Is it inherited? Will it suddenly disappear as rapidly as it appeared? The ultimate cause, and a cure, remain to be found, but recent discoveries offer some hope for the million Britons who suffer from rheumatoid arthritis. The information-hungry world of the 21st century will be fed not by electrical signals, but by pulses of invisible laser light flying along fibres of glass.
What is the revolution in communications that has ousted electricity in favour of light? With crashing motorbikes, stretching trains and a semiconductor laser the size of a department store, Horizon investigates the mysterious world of light technology and, at the frontiers, finds plans for computers that will process information with light.
Janice Blenkharn faces the hardest choice of her life. Whether or not she wants to be told if she will develop an incurable genetic disease called Huntington's disease. Every child of an affected parent has a chance of inheriting it. Janice's mother died of Huntington's Chorea, so Janice is at risk. If she develops it, then her children will be at risk. Until now, there has been no way of knowing who will be affected and who spared.
But thanks to painstaking research in a remote South American fishing village, a test now exists. It offers Janice, and others at risk from this fatal disease, the chance to see into the future. For sufferers of Parkinson's Disease , hope lies in a new experimental operation - a brain transplant - and the first on a human being is just about to take place. This remarkable technique may one day also treat patients with Alzheimer's disease , strokes and paralysing spinal cord injuries, yet promises to be surrounded by controversy because of the source of the transplanted tissue.
Deep in a Japanese cave, a star's last moments are detected by signals from particles which have travelled through , light years of space, and then through the earth itself. It was the most important event in any living astronomer's lifetime, because dying stars are central to the life of our universe. So when the supernova appeared in the southern sky last February, the world's astronomers turned every available instrument on to it.
This unique international collaboration has given fascinating insights into one of the universe's most violent events. The programme follows the supernova's story, from its first sighting in Chile to Australia, America and Japan.