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Virus Research provides a means of fast publication for original papers on fundamental research in virology. Contributions on new developments concerning virus structure , replication , pathogenesis and evolution are encouraged. These include reports describing virus morphology , the function and antigenic These include reports describing virus morphology , the function and antigenic analysis of virus structural components, virus genome structure and expression, analysis on virus replication processes , virus evolution in connection with antiviral interventions , effects of viruses on their host cells , particularly on the immune system , and the pathogenesis of virus infections, including oncogene activation and transduction.

The journal also publishes review articles on topics of current interest, special issues focused on a defined subject, and occasional book reviews and meeting reports. Benefits to authors We also provide many author benefits, such as free PDFs, a liberal copyright policy, special discounts on Elsevier publications and much more.

Please click here for more information on our author services. Please see our Guide for Authors for information on article submission. If you require any further information or help, please visit our Support Center. Search in:. Home Journals Virus Research. ISSN: Virus Research. Editor-in-Chief: Ben Berkhout. View Editorial Board. Submit Your Paper. Supports Open Access. View Articles. Track Your Paper Check submitted paper Due to migration of article submission systems, please check the status of your submitted manuscript in the relevant system below: Check the status of your submitted manuscript in EVISE Check the status of your submitted manuscript in EES: Username Password I forgot my password.

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Track accepted paper Once production of your article has started, you can track the status of your article via Track Your Accepted Article. Order Journal Institutional subscription Personal subscription.

Journal Metrics CiteScore : 2. CiteScore values are based on citation counts in a given year e.

Impact Factor: 2. View More on Journal Insights. Your Research Data Share your research data. This free service is available to anyone who has published and whose publication is in Scopus. Researcher Academy Author Services Try out personalized alert features. Read more. Dixon M. Ulrich Desselberger. Vlad Petrovan Fangfeng Yuan Guichun Tan Meng Duan Changbao Wang Ting Nie Aciclovir is one of the oldest and most frequently prescribed antiviral drugs.

HIV is dependent on a proteolytic enzyme called the HIV-1 protease for it to become fully infectious. There is a large class of drugs called protease inhibitors that inactivate this enzyme. Hepatitis C is caused by an RNA virus. There is now an effective treatment that uses the nucleoside analogue drug ribavirin combined with interferon.

Viruses infect all cellular life and, although viruses occur universally, each cellular species has its own specific range that often infect only that species. Viruses are important pathogens of livestock. Diseases such as foot-and-mouth disease and bluetongue are caused by viruses. Canine parvovirus is caused by a small DNA virus and infections are often fatal in pups.

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There are many types of plant virus, but often they cause only a loss of yield , and it is not economically viable to try to control them. Plant viruses are often spread from plant to plant by organisms , known as vectors. These are normally insects, but some fungi, nematode worms , and single-celled organisms have been shown to be vectors. When control of plant virus infections is considered economical, for perennial fruits, for example, efforts are concentrated on killing the vectors and removing alternate hosts such as weeds.

Plants have elaborate and effective defence mechanisms against viruses. One of the most effective is the presence of so-called resistance R genes. Each R gene confers resistance to a particular virus by triggering localised areas of cell death around the infected cell, which can often be seen with the unaided eye as large spots.

This stops the infection from spreading. Plant virus particles or virus-like particles VLPs have applications in both biotechnology and nanotechnology. The capsids of most plant viruses are simple and robust structures and can be produced in large quantities either by the infection of plants or by expression in a variety of heterologous systems.

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Plant virus particles can be modified genetically and chemically to encapsulate foreign material and can be incorporated into supramolecular structures for use in biotechnology. Bacteriophages are a common and diverse group of viruses and are the most abundant biological entity in aquatic environments—there are up to ten times more of these viruses in the oceans than there are bacteria, [] reaching levels of ,, bacteriophages per millilitre of seawater. Within a short amount of time, in some cases just minutes, bacterial polymerase starts translating viral mRNA into protein.

These proteins go on to become either new virions within the cell, helper proteins, which help assembly of new virions, or proteins involved in cell lysis. Viral enzymes aid in the breakdown of the cell membrane, and, in the case of the T4 phage , in just over twenty minutes after injection over three hundred phages could be released. The major way bacteria defend themselves from bacteriophages is by producing enzymes that destroy foreign DNA. These enzymes, called restriction endonucleases , cut up the viral DNA that bacteriophages inject into bacterial cells.

Some viruses replicate within archaea : these are double-stranded DNA viruses with unusual and sometimes unique shapes. These enable archaea to retain sections of viral DNA, which are then used to target and eliminate subsequent infections by the virus using a process similar to RNA interference. The organic molecules released from the dead bacterial cells stimulate fresh bacterial and algal growth, in a process known as the viral shunt.

In January , scientists reported that million viruses, mainly of marine origin, are deposited daily from the Earth 's atmosphere onto every square meter of the planet's surface, as the result of a global atmospheric stream of viruses, circulating above the weather system, but below the altitude of usual airline travel, distributing viruses around the planet.

Like any organism, marine mammals are susceptible to viral infections. In and , thousands of harbour seals were killed in Europe by phocine distemper virus. Viruses are an important natural means of transferring genes between different species, which increases genetic diversity and drives evolution. Viruses are important to the study of molecular and cell biology as they provide simple systems that can be used to manipulate and investigate the functions of cells. Geneticists often use viruses as vectors to introduce genes into cells that they are studying. This is useful for making the cell produce a foreign substance, or to study the effect of introducing a new gene into the genome.

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In similar fashion, virotherapy uses viruses as vectors to treat various diseases, as they can specifically target cells and DNA. It shows promising use in the treatment of cancer and in gene therapy. Eastern European scientists have used phage therapy as an alternative to antibiotics for some time, and interest in this approach is increasing, because of the high level of antibiotic resistance now found in some pathogenic bacteria.

Industrial processes have been recently developed using viral vectors and a number of pharmaceutical proteins are currently in pre-clinical and clinical trials. Virotherapy involves the use of genetically modified viruses to treat diseases. Talimogene laherparepvec T-VEC , for example, is a modified herpes simplex virus that has had a gene, which is required for viruses to replicate in healthy cells, deleted and replaced with a human gene GM-CSF that stimulates immunity. When this virus infects cancer cells, it destroys them and in doing so the presence the GM-CSF gene attracts dendritic cells from the surrounding tissues of the body.

The dendritic cells process the dead cancer cells and present components of them to other cells of the immune system. Current trends in nanotechnology promise to make much more versatile use of viruses. From the viewpoint of a materials scientist, viruses can be regarded as organic nanoparticles. Their surface carries specific tools designed to cross the barriers of their host cells. The size and shape of viruses, and the number and nature of the functional groups on their surface, is precisely defined.

As such, viruses are commonly used in materials science as scaffolds for covalently linked surface modifications.

Virus Research

A particular quality of viruses is that they can be tailored by directed evolution. The powerful techniques developed by life sciences are becoming the basis of engineering approaches towards nanomaterials, opening a wide range of applications far beyond biology and medicine. Because of their size, shape, and well-defined chemical structures, viruses have been used as templates for organising materials on the nanoscale.

In this application, the virus particles separate the fluorescent dyes used for signalling to prevent the formation of non-fluorescent dimers that act as quenchers.

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Many viruses can be synthesised de novo "from scratch" and the first synthetic virus was created in That is, they contain all the necessary information to produce new viruses. This technology is now being used to investigate novel vaccine strategies. As of November [update] , the full-length genome sequences of different viruses, including smallpox, are publicly available in an online database maintained by the National Institutes of Health.